T3 ONE HEALTH MALAWI Research Papers Other Zoonoses

T3 ONE HEALTH MALAWI Research Papers Other Zoonoses




  • TITLE - Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Cattle of Smallholder Farmers in Central Malawi
  • AUTHOR - Marvin Collen Phonera, Martin Chitolongo Simuunza, Henson Kainga, Joseph Ndebe, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Elisha Chatanga, Setiala Kanyanda, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Benjamin Mubemba, Simbarashe Chitanga, Masahiro Kajihara, Hirofumi Sawa, Gilson Njunga, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu
  • JOURNAL - Pathogens
  • ABSTRACT - Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe where it circulates among animals and ticks causing sporadic outbreaks in humans. Although CCHF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological information is lacking in many countries, including Malawi. To assess the risk of CCHF in Malawi, we conducted an epidemiological study in cattle reared by smallholder livestock farmers in central Malawi. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 involving seven districts, four from Kasungu and three from Lilongwe Agriculture Development Divisions. A structured questionnaire was administered to farmers to obtain demographic, animal management, and ecological risk factors data. Sera were collected from randomly selected cattle and screened for CCHF virus (CCHFV) specific antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Ticks were collected from cattle and classified morphologically to species level. An overall CCHFV seropositivity rate of 46.9% (n = 416; 95% CI: 42.0–51.8%) was observed. The seropositivity was significantly associated with the age of cattle (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), presence of ticks in herds (p = 0.01), district (p = 0.025), and type of grazing lands (p = 0.013). Five species of ticks were identified, including Hyalomma truncatum, a known vector of CCHFV. Ticks of the species Hyalomma truncatum were not detected in two districts with the highest seroprevalence for CCHF and vector competency must be further explored in the study area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serologic evidence of the presence of CCHV among smallholder cattle in central Malawi. This study emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of CCHFV infection among livestock, ticks, and humans for the development of data-based risk mitigation strategies.
  • ISSUE - 12
  • VOLUME - 10
  • DOI - 10.3390/pathogens10121613


  • TITLE - Salmonella identified in pigs in Kenya and Malawi reveals the potential for zoonotic transmission in emerging pork markets 
  • AUTHOR - Catherine N. Wilson, Caisey V. Pulford, James Akoko, Blanca Perez Sepulveda, Alexander V. Predeus, Jessica Bevington, Patricia Duncan, Neil Hall, Paul Wigley, Nicholas Feasey, Gina Pinchbeck, Jay C. D. Hinton, Melita A. Gordon, Eric M. Fevre 
  • JOURNAL - PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 
  • ABSTRACT - Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease globally. Pigs can carry and shed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) asymptomatically, representing a significant reservoir for these pathogens. To investigate Salmonella carriage by African domestic pigs, faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were taken at slaughter in Nairobi, Busia (Kenya) and Chikwawa (Malawi) between October 2016 and May 2017. Selective culture, antisera testing and whole genome sequencing were performed on samples from 647 pigs; the prevalence of NTS carriage was 12.7% in Busia, 9.1% in Nairobi and 24.6% in Chikwawa. Two isolates of S. Typhimurium ST313 were isolated, but were more closely related to ST313 isolates associated with gastroenteritis in the UK than bloodstream infection in Africa. The discovery of porcine NTS carriage in Kenya and Malawi reveals potential for zoonotic transmission of diarrhoeal strains to humans in these countries, but not for transmission of clades specifically associated with invasive NTS disease in Africa. 
  • ISSUE - 11 
  • VOLUME - 14 
  • DOI - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008796


  • TITLE - Phenotypic characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes in cow milk from three catchment areas of Goliati Area in Thyolo District, Malawi 
  • AUTHOR - Chrissy Manuelo, Agathar Mwinjiro, Danger Masangwi, Gama Bandawe, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Yohanne Kazembe, Mada Kamaliza, Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Wilson Mandala, Petros Chigwechokha, Andrew G Mtewa, Tisungane Edward Mwenyenkulu 
  • JOURNAL - Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health 
  • ABSTRACT - Milk is the fluid that is secreted by mammals for the nourishment of their offspring’s. Since humans began to domesticate lactating animals, milk and milk products have been part of the human diet. It is considered one of the most complete sources of nutrients for human beings because of its diverse components such as proteins, vitamins and minerals that are important in human nutrition. However due to its high nutritive value, neutral pH and high water activity, raw milk serve as an excellent growth medium for different microorganisms whose multiplication depends mainly on temperature, other competing microorganisms and their metabolic products. Raw milk also creates good conditions for a variety of spoilage and thus growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important pathogens of public health concerns that can contaminate milk. It is a Gram positive, facultative, intracellular, non-spore forming, motile, rod shaped bacterium that causes Listeriosis in humans, which is manifested by gastroenteritis, meningitis and meningo-encephalitis septicemia especially in people with compromised immunity, including the elderly, pregnant women and newborns. The bacterium is widespread in nature and can survive and grow under low temperatures and pH, high salt and bile concentration, oxidative stress, carbon starvation and other adverse conditions making it a potential hazard in foods. Currently 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes have been identified with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c and 4b are responsible for human Listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from different raw and ready to eat foods and in raw milk and dairy products in different countries. Several cases of Listeriosis in humans have been reported, sometimes with high case fatality rates of up to 30%. In Malawi, it is estimated that 23% of respondents of a survey titled ‘consumers attitudes and willingness to pay for safer milk in Malawi consumed raw milk, however, there is limited data that can be used for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the risk of Listeria monocytogenes infections related to the consumption of raw milk and milk products in Malawi. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk that is produced from Goliati in Thyolo district in Malawi by isolating Listeria monocytogenes according to phenotypic characterization.  
  • ISSUE - 2 
  • VOLUME - 7 
  • DOI - 10.17352/2455-5479.000151


  • TITLE - Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis: a systematic review of the distribution in southern and eastern Africa 
  • AUTHOR - Veronique Dermauw, Pierre Dorny, Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Lucy J. Robertson, Anastasios Saratsis, Lian F. Thomas 
  • JOURNAL - Parasites & Vectors 
  • ABSTRACT - The beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata, causing cysticercosis in bovines and taeniosis in humans, is thought to have a global distribution. In eastern and southern Africa, cattle production plays a crucial role in the economy, but a clear overview of the prevalence of T. saginata in the region is still lacking. This review aims to summarize existing knowledge on T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis distribution in eastern and southern Africa. A systematic review was conducted, that gathered published and grey literature, including OIE reports, concerning T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in eastern and southern Africa published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. A total of 1232 records were initially retrieved, with 78 full text articles retained for inclusion in the database. Unspecified taeniosis cases were reported for Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, whereas T. saginata taeniosis cases were found for Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The prevalence of taeniosis ranged between 0.2‚Äì8.1% based on microscopy, and between 0.12‚Äì19.7% based on coproAg-ELISA. In Ethiopia, the percentage of tapeworm self-reporting was high (45.0‚Äì64.2%), and a substantial number of anthelmintic treatments were reported to be sold in towns. The presence of bovine cysticercosis was reported in all 27 countries/territories included in the study, except for Rwanda and Somalia, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Seychelles and Socotra. The prevalence of cysticercosis ranged between 0.02‚Äì26.3% based on meat inspection, and between 6.1‚Äì34.9% based on Ag-ELISA. Although T. saginata has been reported in the majority of countries/territories of the study area, T. saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a largely ignored condition, probably due to the absence of symptoms in cattle, the lack of data on its economic impact, and the fact that human taeniosis is considered a minor health problem. However, the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis is a clear sign of inadequate sanitation, insufficient meat inspection, and culinary habits that may favour transmission. Measures to reduce transmission of T. saginata are therefore warranted and the infection should be properly monitored. 
  • ISSUE - 1 
  • VOLUME - 11 
  • DOI - 10.1186/s13071-018-3163-3


  • TITLE - Documenting the absence of bovine brucellosis in dairy cattle herds in the southern region of Malawi and the associated knowledge, attitudes and practices of farmers 
  • AUTHOR - John P. Kothowa, Ruth L. Mfune, Jacques Godfroid, Bernard M. Hang'Ombe, Martin Simuunza, John B. Muma 
  • JOURNAL - Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 
  • ABSTRACT - There is paucity of Brucella prevalence data in Malawi. For this reason, a cross-sectional study was conducted, from 06 January 2020 to 27 February 2020, to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle herds amongst smallholder farmers, government and private dairy farms in the southern region. A total of 529 serum samples were screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). A pre-tested electronic (Epicollect tool, Wellcome Sanger Institute, United Kingdom) questionnaire was administered to 378 smallholder farmers to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data in Microsoft Excel¬Æ and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS¬Æ) version 21. No animal tested positive for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies, indicating 0% prevalence (individual and herd levels). The majority (94.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.8‚Äì96.5) of smallholder farmers had never heard about brucellosis. Furthermore, assisting during parturition without protective equipment (41.3%; 95% CI: 36.3‚Äì46.2) and using bulls for breeding (75%; 95% CI: 70.2‚Äì78.9) were amongst the common risk practices that were identified. We could not detect brucellosis in this study that indicates the disease could be very rare or even absent in the dairy cattle herds of the southern region of Malawi. However, further Brucella studies need to be conducted in cattle, small livestock, wildlife and humans to document the true status of brucellosis in the country. Brucellosis surveillance, monitoring, awareness and preventive measures are required to maintain this favourable situation. 
  • ISSUE - 0 
  • VOLUME - 92 
  • DOI - 10.4102/jsava.v92i0.2130


  • TITLE - Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices towards Rift Valley Fever among Livestock Farmers in Selected Districts of Malawi 
  • AUTHOR - Henson Kainga, James Mponela, Linda Basikolo, Marvin Collen Phonera, Prudence Mpundu, Muso Munyeme, Edgar Simulundu, Ngonda Saasa 
  • JOURNAL - Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 
  • ABSTRACT - Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis whose cases go unreported in endemic areas without active surveillance. Information on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of RVF among livestock farmers remains speculative in Malawi. A cross-section survey using a semi-structured questionnaire (n = 400) was conducted in eight districts of Malawi to capture information on knowledge, attitude, and management practices (KAP) regarding RVF. The average KAP score was calculated from total scores for knowledge, attitude, and practices and then assessed. The association between the level of knowledge and factors of knowledge, factors of attitude, and factors of practices was determined using Pearson chi-square. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the predictors of knowledge. Participants had an overall poor knowledge (score = 17.94%), negative attitude (score = 9.40%), and poor management practices (score = 41.23%) towards RVF. Only 8.25% (33/400) of participants had sufficient knowledge of RVF. The study found that the cause of abortion (OR: 3.86 (95% CI: 1.14‚Äì13.05)) (p = 0.030) and knowledge on transmission of RVFV (OR: 5.65 (95% CI: 1.76‚Äì18.12)) (p = 0.004) were predictors of insufficient knowledge of RVF. The current study reported that participants had insufficient knowledge and a negative attitude despite displaying limited management practices towards RVF. Therefore, this study recommends community sensitization to RVF and advocates for the importance of reporting suspected cases to relevant authorities for proper management. 
  • ISSUE - 8 
  • VOLUME - 7 
  • DOI - 10.3390/tropicalmed7080167

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