T2 ONE HEALTH MALAWI Research Papers Aflatoxin

T2 ONE HEALTH MALAWI Research Papers Aflatoxin



  • TITLE - Post Harvest Handling Knowledge and Practices Among Food Handlers Under School Meals Programme and Intake of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Salima District, Malawi
  • AUTHOR - Gibson Mapopa Jere
  • JOURNAL - Asian Food Science Journal
  • ABSTRACT - Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the postharvest handling knowledge and practices among food handlers on mycotoxigenic molds contamination in maize based diets in School Meals Program in Salima District, Malawi.
    Study Design: This was cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative component.
    Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Salima district, Central Malawi, between August and November, 2019.
    Methodology: The study used a structured questionnaire which was administered to 124 individual food handlers which were purposively selected from 31 primary schools. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the 31 primary schools among those implementing home-grown school meals program. The food handlers included School Meals Cooks, Food Suppliers, Food Committee members, and Stores Keepers. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (version 20.0).
    Results: The results showed that 80% of food handlers had high knowledge of causes of mycotoxigenic molds contamination in maize foods, 47% had moderate knowledge of health effects of mycotoxigenic molds, while 50% had moderate knowledge of control measures of mycotoxigenic molds in maize foods. Eighty-five percent (85%) were not aware of mycotoxins contamination in maize foods. Furthermore, the study revealed that 60% of food handlers practiced poor postharvest handling of maize foods during transporting, storage and processing in schools. There were no significant differences in knowledge of mycotoxigenic molds and postharvest handling practices of maize foods across demographic regions among food handlers (P >0.05).
    Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of food handlers had high knowledge of mycotoxigenic molds in maize foods, however they practiced poor postharvest handling which might influence occurrence of mycotoxigenic molds in maize based diets for school children. There is need to educate all stakeholders involved in School meals Programme on mycotoxins and postharvest handling of maize foods to prevent school children from the risk of mycotoxins exposure.
  • DOI - 10.9734/AFSJ/2020/v16i330171


  • TITLE - Occurrence of Aflatoxin and Zearalenone in Concentrate Feeds and Milk Contamination with Aflatoxin M1 and Bacterial Pathogens in Malawi - ProQuest
  • AUTHOR - Chunala Alexico Njombwa
  • ABSTRACT - Multiple studies were conducted in Malawi to: 1) evaluate knowledge and perception of dairy farmers towards molds, mycotoxins and associated adverse effects; 2) evaluate dairy farmers’ knowledge and perception on milk contamination, proper milk handling practices and adverse health effects associated with raw milk consumption; 3) determine levels of aflatoxins and zearalenone (ZEN) in concentrate feedstuffs; 4) assess prevalence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw milk, dietary exposure and estimate HCC risks to children and adults; 5) assess Salmonella and E. coli contamination in raw and processed milk from selected small scale farms and major food stores, Respectively. A total of 130 and 113 concentrate feedstuff and milk samples, respectively, were collected from selected farms. Feed samples were analyzed for total aflatoxin and ZEN while milk samples were analyzed for AFM1. Eighty-seven processed and raw milk samples were collected from selected food stores and dairy farms for E. coli and Salmonella analysis. Less than 50% of dairy farmers were aware of negative effects associated with mycotoxins and perceived mycotoxins as risky to humans and dairy animals. About 60% of the dairy farmers never thought mycotoxins in dairy cows’ feeds could be carried over to milk hence no risk associated with consumption of that milk. The majority of dairy farmers had low knowledge on proper milking and milk handling practices with 77% keeping milk for >6 hours at room temperature and none following all necessary milking steps. Frequency of presence of E. coli (76.1%, n = 46) and Salmonella (26.1%, n = 41) in raw milk samples was significantly higher than in processed fluid milk. Population risk of AFM1-induced HCC were low, estimated at 0.038 and 0.023 cases/100,000 individuals/year for children and adult consumers respectively. Few milk samples (22%) had AFM1 above Malawi regulatory limit of 0.5 ppb. Total aflatoxin (0.5 – 410 ppb) and ZEN (50 – 2400 ppb) were present in all concentrate feed samples with non- viii significant effect of agroecological zones. Current situation calls for training of dairy farmers and frequent monitoring of dairy products quality to seal the gaps identified in these studies.


  • TITLE - Exposure of school children to aflatoxins and fumonisins through maize-based diets in school meals programme in Salima District, Malawi
  • AUTHOR - Jere GM, Abong’ GO, Njue LG, Masamba K and DG Omayio
  • JOURNAL - African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition, and Development
  • ABSTRACT - Exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins contaminated food poses threats to human health, including causation of cancer, immunosuppression, impaired growth, respiratory problems, diarrhea, among others. This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based porridge and the estimated intake levels of the contaminants among school going children in selected primary schools in Salima District, Malawi. A total of 496 children and 124 food handlers from 31 primary schools within three Extension Planning Areas (EPAs) under the School Meals Programmes were involved. Consumption and meal preparation data were collected from the respondents using pre-tested questionnaires. Reveal Q+ Kits were used to quantify aflatoxins and fumonisins in sampled meals. MonteCarlo risk simulation using @RiskPalisadesoftware (UK) was used to generate exposure data. All porridge samples had varying detectable levels of mycotoxins. However, there were no significant (P<0.05) differences in the aflatoxins and fumonisins levels for samples from different EPAs indicating the endemic presence of mycotoxins within the district. Over 95% of the schools used maize as the main ingredient in preparing the porridge with relatively high quantities consumed 610 grams/child/day equivalent to 0.019 kg/kg body weight/day regardless of the gender (œá2 = 5.624, P = 0.286) or the age (r = 0.033, P = 0.459) of the respondents. The levels ofaflatoxins and fumonisins in the samples ranged from 2.13 to 33.37 Œºg/kg and <0.3to1.0 ng/kg, respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile intake levels for aflatoxins ranged from 0.2 -0.60ng/kg body weight/day and 6 ‚Äì9.2 Œºg/kg body weight/day for fumonisins, which exceeded the recommended safety levels for children according to standards of European Food Safety Authority (2007) and Joint Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization Committee on Food Additives (2008), respectively. The consumption of maize-based porridge was found to expose school going children to unacceptable levels of mycotoxins whose effects on their health, education and well-being remain unknown. There is a need to educate food handlers on mycotoxins intoxication and proper post harvest handling practices of maize-based foods to prevent exposure. Furthermore, diversification to reduce over reliance on maize-based diets should be promoted.
  • ISSUE - 6
  • VOLUME - 20
  • DOI - 10.18697/ajfand.94.20110

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